Acne & Skin Care
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Acne (a synonym for acne) is one of the most common skin diseases. The term "acne" refers to various pathological changes in the sebaceous glands. Typical comedones (blackheads) with dark tops appear on the skin of the face, especially on the forehead, as well as on the back, chest, shoulders. Sometimes abscesses (pustules) develop in their place, which are called vulgar eels. Acne has been known for more than 2 thousand years. but AD According to statistics, 70 - 80% of adolescents and young people and about 11% of the adult population over 25 suffer from this disease.
During puberty and hormonal changes, the secretion of sebum increases, that is, seborrhea occurs - a painful condition of the skin associated with an increase in the amount of sebum secreted by the sebaceous glands and a change in its chemical composition.
Usually there is the so-called oily seborrhea. It is expressed by the visible and palpable oily skin of the seborrheic areas (nose, forehead, cheeks, chin, behind the auricles, upper chest and back, scalp.). The skin in these areas glistens, the openings of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles are enlarged. The skin seems thicker and rougher, as if contaminated. Enlarged sebaceous glands give a rough look to seborrheic skin.
REASONS FOR ACNE
- hormonal activity (menstruation, puberty)
- transitional age
- adrenal gland stress
- overactive sebaceous glands
- accumulation of dead skin cells
- skin lesions accompanied by inflammation
- use of anabolic steroids
- use of preparations containing halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine), lithium and barbiturates.
Also, digestive disorders: dyspepsia and chronic constipation exacerbate seborrhea. It should be noted that feta cheese, cheese, eggs, liver, legumes, pickles, canned meat, coffee, chocolate more often than other products cause exacerbation of seborrhea. Very often, skin disorders are accompanied by diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, so it may be necessary to consult a gastroenterologist and then switch to medical nutrition
The neuropsychic mechanism is of undoubted importance in the development of seborrhea and acne. Acne, even in mild severity, significantly reduces self-esteem, causes anxiety, depression.
Prolonged, occurring with frequent exacerbations of seborrhea and acne cause an unclean, unkempt appearance of the face and often lead to a change in character and behavior, as well as mental depression of patients.
SYMPTOMS OF ACNE
Initial skin changes with acne are open or closed comedones. Comedon is a “cast” of the duct, consisting of rejected corneocytes and microorganisms glued together with sebum. Open comedones, unlike closed comedies, are resolved independently and without a trace in about 80% of cases. The addition of an inflammatory reaction in the circumference of the comedone leads to its destruction and the subsequent formation of the papule, and then the pustule. The development of an inflammatory reaction in the dermis leads to the formation of nodes, and when they suppurate - cysts.
The most common form of acne is acne vulgaris. Excess sebum production by the glands of the same name clogs the pores with dying corneocytes, blocking skin follicles. The accumulation of these corneocytes in the ducts is due to a violation of keratinization, which usually leads to exfoliation of cells. Sebum is deposited under blocked pores, providing an excellent environment for the reproduction of microorganisms: Propionibacterium acnes, Malassezia.
The face and upper neck are most commonly affected, but the chest, back and shoulders may also be involved. Acne, papules, pustules, nodules, and inflammatory cysts (cystic acne) can be found on the skin. These cysts contain pus. Non-inflammatory sebaceous cysts (epidermoid cysts) may be associated with acne. After acne, scars may remain.
To assess the severity of acne in practice, the classification proposed by the American Academy of Dermatology is most convenient:
1 degree - the presence of comedones and up to 10 papules;
2 degree - comedones, papules, up to 5 pustules,
Grade 3 - comedones, papulopustular rash, up to 5 knots.
Grade 4 - a pronounced inflammatory reaction in the deep layers of the dermis with the formation of painful nodes and cysts.
TREATMENT AND CARE
The approach to Acne treatment should be comprehensive: compliance with dietary recommendations, proper dermatological skin care, drug treatment, non-recommended decorative cosmetics.
General acne therapy strategy depending on severity:
1st degree - local therapy: pharmacy cosmetics, diets.
2nd degree - local therapy: pharmacy cosmetics + medicines prescribed by a dermatologist.
3rd and 4th degree - medications prescribed by a dermatologist.
As the long-term experience of dermatologists and cosmetologists shows, the timely use of pharmaceutical cosmetics to care for problem skin with acne, for example in adolescents, leads to clinical treatment without a prescription.